There exists an alternative practice to global leadership outside the widely accepted Western US-centric leadership methodologies.  In Turnbull’s Worldly Leadership – Alternative Wisdoms he suggests that “an alternative view to global leadership is needed owing to four limitations (1) global leadership is often shorthand for the applications of Western management practices in non-western contexts;  (2) defining a set of universal traits for leadership is impossible;  (3) leadership is contextually driven and (4) leadership can be seen as a dynamic social process.  Authentic African Leadership in its purest sense will reflect African leaders’ unique indigenous culture, values, norms, beliefs, historical underpinnings and traditions.